Police funding has risen by £4.8 billion and 77 percent (39 percent in real terms) since 1997. However, the days where forces have enjoyed such levels of funding are over. Police funding has risen by £4.8 billion and 77 percent (39 percent in real terms) since 1997. However, the days where forces have enjoyed such levels of funding are over.
Chief Constables and senior management recognize that the annual cycle of looking for efficiencies year-on-year is not sustainable and will not address the cash shortfall in years to come. Facing slower funding growth and real cash deficits in their budgets, the Police Service must adopt innovative strategies which generate the productivity and efficiency gains needed to deliver high-quality policing to the public. The step-change in performance required to meet this challenge will only be achieved if the police service fully embraces effective resource management and makes efficient and productive use of its technology, partnerships, and people. The finance function has an essential role in addressing these challenges and supporting the Forces’ objectives economically and efficiently.
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Police Forces tend to nurture a divisional and departmental culture rather than a corporate one, with individual procurement activities that do not exploit economies of scale. This is the result of over a decade of devolving functions from the center to the. Divisions. To reduce costs, improve efficiency and mitigate against the threat of “top-down” mandatory, centrally-driven initiatives, Police Forces need to set up a corporate back office and induce behavioral change. This change must involve compliance with a corporate culture rather than a series of silos running through the organization.
Developing a Best in Class Finance Function
Traditionally finance functions within Police Forces have focused on transactional processing with only limited support for management information and business decision support. With a renewed focus on efficiencies, there is now a pressing need for finance departments to transform to add greater value to the force but with minimal costs.
1) Aligning to Force Strategy
As Police Forces need finance to function, finance and operations must be closely aligned. This collaboration can be potent and help deliver significant improvements to a Force, but there are many barriers to overcome to achieve this model. Finance Directors must look at whether their Force is ready for this collaboration, but more importantly, they must consider whether the Force itself can survive without it.
Finance requires a clear vision that centers around its role as a balanced business partner. However, to achieve this vision, a huge effort is required from the bottom up to understand the significant complexity in underlying systems and processes and to devise a way forward that can work for that particular organization. The success of any change management program is dependent on its execution. Change is difficult and costly to execute correctly, and often, Police Forces lack the relevant experience to achieve such change. Although finance directors are required to hold appropriate professional qualifications (as opposed to being former police officers, as was the case a few years ago), many have progressed within the Public Sector with limited opportunities for learning from and interaction with best-in-class methodologies. In addition, cultural issues around self-preservation can present barriers to change. Whilst it is relatively easy to get the message of finance transformation across, securing commitment to embark on bold change can be tough. Business cases often lack the quality required to drive through change, and even where they are of exceptional quality, senior police officers often lack the commercial awareness to trust them.
2) Supporting Force Decisions
Maintaining Financial Controls and Managing Risk. Many Finance Directors are keen to develop their finance functions. The challenge they face is convincing the rest of the Force that the finance function can add value – by devoting more time and effort to financial analysis and providing senior management with the tools to understand the financial implications of major strategic decisions. Sarbanes Oxley, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Basel II, and Individual Capital Assessments (ICA) have all put financial controls and reporting under the spotlight in the private sector. This, in turn, is increasing the spotlight on financial controls in the public sector. A ‘Best in Class’ Police Force finance function will not just have the minimum controls to meet the regulatory requirements but will evaluate how the legislation and regulations that the finance function are required to comply with can be leveraged to provide value to the organization. Providing strategic information to enable the force to meet its objectives is a key task for a leading finance function.
3) Value to the Force
The drive for development over the last decade has moved decision-making to the Divisions and has led to an increase in costs in the finance function. By utilizing several initiatives in a program of transformation, a Force can leverage up to 40% of savings on the cost of finance and improve the responsiveness of finance teams and the quality of financial information. These initiatives include:
By centralizing the finance function, a Police Force can create centers of excellence where industry best practices can be developed and shared. This will re-empower the department, creating greater independence and objectivity in assessing projects and performance and leading to more consistent management information and a higher degree of control. A Police Force can also develop a business partner group to act as strategic liaisons to departments and divisions. The business partners would, for example, advise on how the departmental and divisional commanders can meet the budget in future months instead of merely advising that the budget has been missed for the previous month. With the mundane number crunching being performed in a shared service center, finance professionals will find they now have time to act as business partners to divisions and departments and focus on the strategic issues. The cultural impact on the departments and divisional commanders should not be underestimated. Commanders will be concerned that: o Their budgets will be centralized o Workloads would increase o There will be limited access to finance individuals, o There will not be on-site support.
However, if the centralized shared service center is designed appropriately, none of the above should apply. In fact, from centralization under a best practice model, leaders should accrue the following benefits: o Strategic advice provided by business partners o Increased flexibility o Improved management information o Faster transactions o a Reduced number of unresolved queries o Greater clarity on service and cost of provision o Forum for finance to be strategically aligned to the needs of the Force A Force that moves from a de-centralized to a centralized system should try and ensure that the finance function does not lose touch with the Chief Constable and Divisional Commanders. Forces need to have a robust business case for finance transformation combined with a governance structure that spans operational, tactical, and strategic requirements. There is a risk that the potential benefits of implementing such a change may not be realized if the program is not carefully managed. Investment is needed to create a successful centralized finance function. Typically, future potential benefits of greater visibility and control, consistent processes, standardized management information, economies of scale, long-term cost savings, and an empowered group of proud finance professionals should outweigh those initial costs.
The finance functions can be completely outsourced or partially outsourced to third parties to reduce the commercial, operational, and capability risks. This will provide guaranteed cost benefits and may provide the opportunity to leverage relationships with vendors that provide best practice processes. Process Efficiencies Typically, the focus on development for police forces has developed a silo-based culture with disparate processes. As a result, significant opportunities exist for standardization and simplification of processes that provide scalability, reduce manual effort and deliver business benefit. A force can typically accrue a 40% reduction in the number of processes from simply rationalizing processes. An example of this is electronic bank statements instead of using the manual bank statement for bank reconciliation and accounts receivable processes. This would save considerable effort involved in analyzing the data, moving the data onto different spreadsheets, and inputting the data into the financial systems.
Organizations that possess a silo operating model tend to have significant inefficiencies and duplication in their processes, for example, in HR and Payroll. This is largely due to the teams involved meeting their own goals but not aligning to the corporate objectives of an organization. Police Forces have several independent teams that are rarely another for data, with finance in departments, divisions, and headquarters sending and receiving information from each other and the rest of the Force. The silo model leads to ineffective data being received by the teams that have to carry out additional work to obtain the required information.
Whilst the argument for development has been well made in the context of moving decision-making closer to operational service delivery, the added cost in terms of resources, duplication, and misaligned processes has rarely featured in the debate. In the current financial climate, these costs need to be recognized.
Within transactional processes, a leading finance function will set up targets for staff members daily. This target setting is an element of the metric-based culture that leading finance functions develop. If the appropriate metrics of productivity and quality are applied and when these targets are challenging but not impossible, this is proven to improve productivity and quality. A ‘Best in Class’ finance function in Police Forces will have a service-focused culture. The primary objectives are to provide a high level of satisfaction for its customers (departments, divisions, employees & suppliers). A ‘Best in Class’ finance function will measure customer satisfaction quickly through a metric-based approach. This will be combined with a team-wide focus on process improvement, with process owners that will not necessarily be the team leads, owning force-wide improvement to finance processes.
Organizational structures within Police Forces are typically made up of supervisors leading teams of one to four team members. Through centralizing and consolidating the finance function, an opportunity exists to increase the span of control to best practice levels of 6 to 8 team members to one team lead/supervisor. By adjusting the organizational structure and increasing the span of control, Police Forces can accrue significant cashable benefits from reducing the number of team leads. Team leads can accrue better management experience from managing larger teams.
Technology Enabled Improvements
A significant number of technology improvements that a Police Force could implement to help develop a ‘Best in Class’ finance function. These include A) Scanning and workflow Through adopting a scanning and workflow solution to replace manual processes, improved visibility, transparency, and efficiencies can be reaped. B) Call logging, tracking, and workflow tool Police Forces generally have several individuals responding to internal and supplier queries. These queries are neither logged nor tracked. The consequence of this is dual:
O Queries consume considerable effort within a particular finance team. There is a high risk of duplicated effort from the lack of logging of queries. For example, a query could be responded to for 30 minutes by person A in the finance team. Due to this query not being logged, if the individual that raised the query called up again and spoke to a different person than just for one additional question, this could take up to 20 minutes to ensure that the background was appropriately explained.
o Queries can have numerous interfaces with the business. An unresolved query can be responded against by up to four separate teams with considerable delay in providing a clear answer for the supplier. The implementation of a call logging, tracking and workflow tool to document, measure, and close internal and supplier queries combined with the set up of a central queries team would significantly reduce the effort involved in responding to queries within the finance departments and divisions, as well as within the actual divisions and departments, and procurement. C) Database solution Throughout finance departments, a significant number of spreadsheets are utilized before input into the financial system. There is a tendency to transfer information manually from one spreadsheet to another to meet the needs of different teams. Replacing the spreadsheets with a database solution would rationalize the number of inputs and lead to effort savings for the front-line Police Officers and Police Staff.