“People will divide into “parties” over the question of a new gigantic canal, or the distribution of oases in the Sahara (such a question will exist too), over the regulation of the weather and the climate, over a new theatre, over chemical hypotheses, over two competing tendencies in music, and over a best system of sports.”
– Leon Trotsky, Literature and Revolution
At the start of the twentieth century, the sport had not flourished in Russia to the same extent as in countries such as Britain. The majority of the Russian population were peasants, spending hours each day on back-breaking agricultural labor. Leisure time was difficult to come by, and even then, people were often exhausted from their work. Of course, people still played, taking part in traditional games like the laptop (similar to baseball) and gorodki (a bowling game). A smattering of sports clubs existed in the larger cities, but they remained the preserve of the richer members of society. Ice hockey was beginning to grow in popularity, and the upper echelons of society were fond of fencing and rowing, using expensive equipment most people would never have been able to afford.
In 1917 the Russian Revolution turned the world upside down, inspiring millions of people with its vision of a society built on solidarity and fulfilling human needs. In the process, it unleashed an explosion of creativity in art, music, poetry, and literature. It touched every area of people’s lives, including the games they played. Sport, however, was far from being a priority. The Bolsheviks, who had led the revolution, were confronted with civil war, invading armies, widespread famine, and a typhus epidemic. Survival, not leisure, was the order of the day. However, during the early part of the 1920s, before the dreams of the revolution were crushed by Stalin, the debate over a “best system of sports” that Trotsky had predicted did indeed take place. Two groups to tackle the question of “physical culture” were the hygienists and the Proletkultists.
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As the name implies, the hygienists were a collection of doctors and health care professionals whose attitudes were informed by their medical knowledge. Generally speaking, they were critical of sport, concerned that its emphasis on competition placed participants at risk of injury. They were equally disdainful of the West’s preoccupation with running faster, throwing further, or jumping higher than ever before. “It is completely unnecessary and unimportant,” said A.A. Zikmund, head of the Physical Culture Institute in Moscow, “that anyone set a new world or Russian record.” Instead, the hygienists advocated non-competitive physical pursuits – like gymnastics and swimming -as ways for people to stay healthy and relax.
For a period of time, the hygienists influenced Soviet policy on questions of physical culture. On their advice, certain sports were prohibited, and football, boxing, and weight-lifting were all omitted from the program of events at the First Trade Union Games in 1925. However, the hygienists were far from unanimous in their condemnation of sport. V.V. Gorinevsky, for example, was an advocate of playing tennis which he saw as an ideal physical exercise. Nikolai Semashko, a doctor and the People’s Commissar for Health, went much further, arguing that sport was “the open gate to physical culture” which “develops the sort of will-power, strength, and skill that should distinguish Soviet people.”
In contrast to the hygienists, the Proletkult movement was unequivocal in its rejection of ‘bourgeois’ sport. Indeed they denounced anything that smacked the old society, art, literature, or music. They saw the ideology of capitalism woven into the fabric of the sport. Its competitiveness set workers against each other, dividing people by tribal and national identities, while the physicality of the games put unnatural strains on the players’ bodies.
Proletkultists argued for new, proletarian forms of play founded on mass participation and cooperation principles in place of sport. Often these new games were huge theatrical displays looking more like carnivals or parades than the sports we see today. Contests were shunned on the basis that they were ideologically incompatible with the new socialist society. Participation replaced spectating, and each event contained a distinct political message, as is apparent from some of their names: Rescue from the Imperialists; Smuggling Revolutionary Literature Across the Frontier; and Helping the Proletarians.
It would be easy to characterize the Bolsheviks as being anti-sports. Leading members of the party were friends and comrades with those who were most critical of the sport during the debates on physical culture. Some of the leading hygienists were close to Leon Trotsky, while Anatoli Lunacharsky, the Commissar for the Enlightenment, shared many views with Proletkult. In addition, the party’s attitude to the Olympics is normally given as evidence to support this anti-sport claim. The Bolsheviks boycotted the Games, arguing that they “deflect workers from the class struggle and train them for imperialist wars.” Yet, in reality, the Bolshevik’s attitudes towards sport were somewhat more complicated.
They regarded participation in the new physical culture as highly important, a life-affirming activity allowing people to experience the freedom and movement of their own bodies. Lenin was convinced that recreation and exercise were integral parts of a well-rounded life. “Young people especially need to have a zest for life and be in good spirits. Healthy sport – gymnastics, swimming, hiking, all manner of physical exercise – should be combined as much as possible with a variety of intellectual interests, study, analysis, and investigation… Healthy bodies, healthy minds!”
Unsurprisingly, in the aftermath of the revolution, the sport would play a political role for the Bolsheviks. Facing internal and external threats which would decimate the working class, they saw sport as a means by which the health and fitness of the population could be improved. As early as 1918, they issued a decree, On Compulsory Instruction in the Military Art, introducing physical training to the education system.
This tension between the ideals of future physical culture and the pressing concerns of the day was evident in a resolution passed by the Third All-Russia Congress of the Russian Young Communist League in October 1920:
“The physical culture of the younger generation is an essential element in the overall system of the communist upbringing of young people, aimed at creating harmoniously developed human beings, creative citizens of communist society. Today physical culture also has direct practical aims: (1) preparing young people for work; and (2) preparing them for military defense of Soviet power.”
The sport would also play a role in other areas of political work. Before the revolution, the liberal educationalist Peter Lesgaft noted that “social servitude has left its degrading imprint on women. Our task is to free the female body of its fetters”. Now the Bolsheviks attempted to put his ideas into practice. The position of women in society had already been greatly improved through the legalization of abortion and divorce. Still, the sport could also play a role by increasingly bringing women into public life. “It is our urgent task to draw women into sport,” said Lenin. “If we can achieve that and get them to make full use of the sun, water, and fresh air for fortifying themselves, we shall bring an entire revolution in the Russian way of life.”
And sport became another way of conveying the ideals of the revolution to the working classes of Europe. The worker-sport movement stretched across the continent, and millions of workers were members of sports clubs run mainly by reformist organizations. The Red Sports International (RSI) was formed in 1921 to connect with these workers. Through the following decade, the RSI (and the reformist Socialist Worker Sports International) held several Spartakiads and Worker Olympics in opposition to the official Olympic Games. Worker-athletes from across the globe would come together to participate in a whole range of events, including processions, poetry, art, and competitive sport. There was none of the discrimination that marred the ‘proper’ Olympics. Men and women of all colors were eligible to take part irrespective of ability. The results were very much of secondary importance.
So, were the Bolsheviks anti-sport? They certainly did not seem to go as far as Proletkult’s fervent ideological opposition and, as we have seen, were prepared to utilize sport to pursue wider political goals. No doubt there were many individual Bolsheviks who despised sports. Equally, many will have greatly enjoyed them. Indeed, as the British secret agent Robert Bruce Lockhart observed, Lenin himself was a keen sportsman: “From boyhood, he had been fond of shooting and skating. Always a great walker, he became a keen mountaineer, a lively cyclist, and an impatient fisherman.” Lunacharsky, despite his association with Proletkult, extolled the virtues of both rugby union and boxing, hardly the most benign of modern sports.
This is not to say that the party was uncritical of ‘bourgeois’ sport. But the Bolsheviks were never overly prescriptive in their analysis of what physical culture should look like. They tackled the worst excesses of sport under capitalism. The emphasis on competition was removed, a contest that risked serious injury to the participants was banned, the flag-waving nationalist trappings endemic to modern sport disappeared, and the games people played were no longer treated as commodities.
The position of the Bolsheviks in those early days is perhaps best summarized by Trotsky in the quote that opens this chapter. It was not for the party to decide what constituted the “best system of sports” or produce the correct line for the working class to follow. Rather it was for the mass of people to discuss and debate, experiment and innovate, and in that process create their own sports and games. Nobody could foresee exactly what the play of a future socialist society would be like, but equally, no one could doubt that the need to play would assert itself. As Trotsky said, “The longing for amusement, distraction, sight-seeing, and laughter is the most legitimate of human nature.”
The hopes of the revolution died, alongside thousands of old Bolsheviks, with the rise of Josef Stalin. The collectivist ideals of 1917 were buried, replaced by exploitation and brutal repression. Internationalism was jettisoned in favor of “socialism in one country.” As the values and imperatives of the society changed, so too did the character of the country’s physical culture. By 1925 the Bolsheviks had already turned towards a more elitist model of the sport. Around this time, Stalin is reported to have said: “We compete with the bourgeoisie economically, politically, and not without success. We compete everywhere possible. Why not compete in sport?” Team sports reappeared, complete with the capitalist-style league and cup structures. Successful sportspeople were held up as heroes in the Soviet Union, and the quest for records resumed. Many hygienists and Proletkultists who had dared to dream of new forms of physical culture perished in the purges.
Eventually, sport became a proxy for the Cold War. In 1952 the Soviet Union was re-integrated into the Olympic movement, ensuring that the medal table at each game became a measure of the relative strength of East and West. The country was inexorably compelled into economic, political, and military competition on the international stage; it also found itself drawn into sporting competition with the West.
Just as it would be a mistake to judge the ideals of the Russian Revolution by the horrors of Stalinism, so we should not allow the latter days of Soviet sport to obscure those remarkable early experiments in physical culture. Sport in Russia may have ended as a steroid-enhanced caricature, but how far removed that was from the vision of Lenin when he said: “Young men and women of the Soviet land should live life beautifully and to the full in public and private life. Wrestling, work, study, sport, making merry, singing, dreaming – these are things young people should make the most of.”